There is no formal way of preventing this behaviour as editing a post is assumed to improve it, and the subsequent bump is a by-product.
Since the site is community driven, improper use of this technique can be discussed in the chat room - to seek confirmation (just to make sure you're not seeing things that aren't there) and perhaps brought to moderator ...
According to the help topic What should I do if no one answers my question? users are encouraged to "edit your question to provide status and progress updates. Document your own continued efforts to answer your question. This will naturally bump your question to the homepage and get more people interested in it."
Even if someone edits their question only ...
This is an idea that comes up fairly frequently, on all different sites, with the best of intentions. In addition to the link Paul gave, there's Is it possible for me to edit my answer without bumping the question up the list?, Is there a way to edit a question without bumping it to the front page?, Could we have the ability to mark a change as minor in ...
Since this is the way StackExchange works, I assume it is absolutely OK. If not, I am sure this feature will be removed.
Regularly, I reread my own questions and answers. If I see errors, or a sentence that should be rephrased to improve the language, I will do that.
The rule for Community here is simple: questions without upvoted answers are possible candidates for bumping. In the question you link, the answer has received no upvotes, so it's not regarded as answered: the entire idea of StackOverflow is that answers are important to more than just the person who asks the question.
Sorry. I didn´t know this happened.
And I believe I may speak for others too.
Only after reading this post I find out that questions/answers get bumped by making minor edits. And that it´s annoying. Now I realise both of them.
Also, we could take into account:
many many newcomers just post a few times, hence, maybe ignoring this rule of the site is ...
If a question is bad then people would downvote/close it.
If that does not happen, and we assume the question is intrinsically worth asking / answering, then the bump should have no significant effect in the long run I feel.
I think that an automatism sometimes could be dangerous.
All question having a self-answer should be marked as "answered".
It may happen that the OP answers with a workaround, but s/he still looking for something better. See here, for example:
Diagonal arrows consisting of smaller arrows in xymatrix package.
All question having one (or more) answer(s) ...
Maybe it's slightly out of scope, but if you notice abuse of that feature,
maybe you can document properties of the behaviour (e.g. "100 updates per day" or sth like that) and than propose to StackExchange (as it's feature generally available on many sites) some kind of throttling (for example "move question up, on first 50 edits of given question per day. ...