There are some meta-questions about bug reports evolving from questions (1, 2, 3). One way to deal with this is to file a bug report to the package's maintainer or to encourage others to do so. If someone is confronted with this issue the first time, he may be unsure what exactly to do. So I ask this question, where we can link in the future for an "tutorial" on this.
I found a bug in a package and want to inform the maintainer. Where shall I look for the correct way to do so? Are there differences of the most common ways? What shall I include in a report? Are there other policies I should know?
Please note, that I may or may not know anything about the process of software developement and the special features of open-source software.